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. started in 1912, the anc was created to peacefully advocate for political rights for south africa's blacks. mandela sees the future of the organization. >> he said we at the anc wanted to be a mass organization, and we needed a mass leader. and wen thun day nelson mandela walked into his office. he realized that's the guy. >> reporter: he becomes mandela's mentor and encourages him to earn a law degree. he also introduces mandela to his young cousin, evelyn masi. the two marry in 1946 and welcomed their first child, a son, that same year. their family will eventually grow to include another son and a daughter. another daughter had been born in 1947 but died within a year. racism and segregation had existed in south africa for as long as there had been white settlers, the majority of them were descendants of the dutch and call themselves afrikaners. in 1948 the national party sweeps boo powers and codifies those apartheid policies into law. >> they were trying to achieve this kind of ethnic fragmentation of the country here in order to give the afrikaner nation its own homeland. >> reporter
cannot take lightly that the anc and nelson mandela were considered terrorists by much of the western world, including the right wing here. and for mandela to emerge as a prisoner negotiating privately, at great risk, even at the great risk of some that were supporters of his, who didn't know about the negotiations until later. for him to take that move of reconciliation and lead that country into an election, i was an election observer. i remember barbara lee. i have a picture of her and danny glover and all of us at the carlton hotel. it was an amazing time to see people lined up the first time they could vote. for miles and miles, for three days. and they didn't vote on individuals, they voted on parties. but to go from terrorist to being the kind of celebrated statesman. people shouldn't sweep past that. he suffered. many of his colleagues suffered. decades in jail, ostracized. never thought they would see daylight again as free people. but they took that and transformed their country. i was with him when he went to the u.n. and asked for the removal of sanctions. to be around thi
operation since apardth d apartheid. it raised questions about the country's leadership and power of the anc which was once unquestionably a party of the peel. with more, mike hanna in johan he johanesbur g. >> prayers for a man who touched the lives of all. an awarenets of challenges to come. the growing death between rich and poor is the most brutal reminder that mandela's promise of a better life is still to be realized. >> i think the challenge we have doesn't necessarily need man dela. it needs us in south africa to face the reality if we don't do something very logical, the why unpeople are going to revolt because if they remain poor, and a few become richer, the young people will revolt. if the fault lines within south african society have been too clear in recent times, a labor dispute that resulted in the killing of more than 30 americana last year. many argue the root cause of such violence is an africans national congress government that has lost touch with those who put it in power. >> if you look at what has been happening over the last few years in terms of public violence, you
grew up in a south africa divided by apartheid. >> the anc has two options, continue doing same, which is the political party it is now, or it can make itself into a party of the 21st century. so it has to think about the young voters, the people who were born after apartheid, born even in the 1990s who are now the youngest voters in south africa, those are the voters that it has to create a strategy for, the voters they have to convince to go to the polls and vote. >> this is a crossroads isn't it? >> yes, it is a crossroads, it cannot claim just to be the party that liberated south africa, it has to create more positive claims. >> it can't rely on nelson mandela and its history. >> right. but it's about the history of libertying south africa from white rule. it is a history that doesn't build houses. it is a history that builds clinics and makes schools run. they have to try to put in place the kind of civil service that delivers that. >> because searveg has a lot of -- searve south africa has af problems it is dealing with. how much of that should be blamed on the anc, the ruling pa
of the anc. he was arrested again in 1962 and tried for his anti-apartheid activity. mandela when sentenced to life in prison in 1964. he would end up spending a quarter of a century behind bars, first in robben island, then in cape town. waves of violence shook the country while he was in prison. forces shoternment dozens of youth and schoolchildren demonstrating peacefully. in the 1980's, the ministrations -- demonstrations and police violence continued. the country's economy collapse. the anti-apartment movement it momentumked up abroad and nelson mandela became its symbol. mandela was eventually innsferred to another prison 1988 when he initiated secret negotiations with the government. in 1990, the ban on the anc was lifted. that year he walked out a free man. mandela was elected president of the anc in 1991. he continued to negotiate with president f.w. de klerk to seek an end to the country's racist laws. both men were awarded the nobel peace prize in 1993. >> we can stop the forward movement of these forces in the country. inapartheid came to an end 1994 when black south africans we
a property here. >> what has been the relationship of his image to the a.n.c., the african national congress. >> as before, he is definitely the biggest name, the biggest figure to come out of the a.n.c. he was the one who in the 40's formed the a.n.c. youth league. he then radicalized the a.n.c. and convinced the a.n.c. to pursue a program of sabotage against the apartheid government. he has always been the person everyone looks to. in his later years, he has faded. he has not had the presence to lead the organization anymore, but he has always been the point of reference. he has always been the one anyone would refer to if they the moral high ground, or if they wanted to talk about the direction of the country. >> now, is there a divide we need to understand when we think about south africa that still exists economically as well as educationally and socially? >> there has been a huge divide in south africa. south africa remains a very unequal society. white south africans on average earn six times more than the average black south africans. there is a huge racial component to all of this.
the anc was deemed a terrorist organization in the u.s., the plo was one of the biggest supporters of the anc. so i think both because of that history and also because of the way conflict is reported in south africa, there's a kind of deep identification. and i think to the extent that the interview subjects i had talked about it it's a kind of identification around the possibilities of irreconcilable -- seemingly irreconcilable differences potentially being with bridged. because you'll be, you'll be in townships, or you'll be in parts of johannesburg where people will suddenly be in school with an afrikan-speaking white person whose participants probably -- whose parents probably supported apartheid. and people will be in school or social networks together. so i think that to the extent they're thinking about the middle east as opposed to what's happening down the street, this message would be seemingly irreconcilable differences are sometimes reconciled, or at least people come to a point of being able to peacefully tolerate one another. enter thank you. >> we have time for one l
of the anc, he goes to prison, and there is this transition. can you talk to us about nelson mandela during those prison years and that transformation. the think sing that he is both an inspirational and elegant sportsman. he is also a very practical politician. he has argued a peaceful change when that was possible, he considered that armed struggle might be necessary. he only opted the struggle in the early 1960's, and it was at that point that the south african government has banned the congress, if you were black, you could not vote, not even speak politically. even when he was released from prison in the 1990's, he did say, or he would not renounce the necessity in certain circumstances for using armed struggle. remember the south african military was threaten to have a coupe, and there was a good chance in 1994, instead of having an elected black majority, we may have seen a white racism military regime. it came very very close. >> professor, hang on, i can see ali velshi nodding here. >> yeah. professor remember in the negotiations leading to the first election, the white supremacist
. unemployment, and poverty continue to be real issues for the country, this many years now, with the anc, at the head of the political weather. >> you know, it is a combination of things. i think worldwide jobs, and labor, have -- it's a very difficult period worldwide for those but in south africa it is a place of great deal idealism, that's been cheated of it's democratic birthright in many ways. by corruption, by nepotism, and by lack of concern for those small people that have been called that nelson la used to understand were the bedrock of what makes a nation. >> well, and it is good to talk to you, greg. at this moment in time, i thank you for your insights and your thoughts on the passing of nelson mandela, and these are pictures from johan news burg outside the house. nelson mandela, the u.n. secretary general, was he making a statement of the passing, just let me know. let me bring in my colleague morgan ratford. lived and talks -- i did not know this, in south africa. morgan, what are your thoughts in. >> there was in 2010, i was there as a full right and i taught at the unive
for the question. the big accommodation that was made by the anc in the negotiations that led to the first election as you probably know was to keep the terms private property rights and the basic struts of the economy protected. that was the trade-off. the crude way of putting it is the vote and the right to have an effect in politics in exchange for no radical change in the economic structure, no radical redistribution of wealth. so 80% of land, 80% of wealth was held by whites, a minority of about 9%. and that entwining of race and class absolutely constrains the ability for a people to feel that political liberation was followed by economic liberation. and that is the biggest challenge for the government and for the society, is figuring out legal ways in which to alter those dynamics. now at the same time, in the last 19 years two million black people have moved into middle income stat that. -- strata. so not often, clearly, but also not enough so we want to be careful in terms of how we evaluate what's going on there. but certainly, that, you know, the entire thrust of the liberation movement
mandela was in his early 40s. he had joined the african national congress, the anc, way back in 1944. the anc and the other major organizations opposing apartheid in south africa had been organized as nonviolent movements, nonviolent resistance, and nonviolent organizing. but after sharpville, they decided that maybe that wasn't enough. after sharpville, they decided they would form a paramilitary wing, and nelson mandela was one of the anc leader who is went underground to help start it. they said they would target government buildings and strategic infrastructure and they would try to sabotage the state. after sharpville, the government of south africa started mass arrests of anc leaders and other activists. they banned the anc. they made it illegal to be a member of that group. nelson mandela was arrested for treason in 1961, he was acquitted and he was convicted of traveling illegally. they sentenced him to five years hard labor on south africa's version of alcatraz, which is robin island. while he was already serving that sentence, while he was already in prison, they put him on
to the anc, the same organization. my grandmother was also a political leader within the anc. >> and your grandmother then also was close to him and visited him in prison, and nelson mandela wrote her. >> several times, and my grandmother would write back. she told me she wrote so many letters, some of which never reached him. a few made it all the way and she put them into a book. and after giving them to the archives. >> having visited him in prison where he suffered, he it tuberculosis, problems with his eyesight. she must have seen the suffering. what did she say or what do you think about how he left prison and had the grace and indignity to invite the gaolers. >> at this point i have to d admit when she came back i thought she'd come back with a message of fighting. let's continue the fight. she said, "you'll be surprised, my grandson, nelson mandela is going to tell us all to reconcile, shake hands with our former enemies." he is convinced he'll be released. she came back convinced the man had not changed. he was for the policies and would reconcile. desmond tutu, the arch bishop a
, but when it stopped being successful, i turned the anc into a military armed wing because my plate goal, my overriding principle was premium for my people and justice for my people and anything that would get me there was what road i would take, that's a pragmatist, a pragmatic politician, not a saint. >> rose: jerry? >> yes, you know, i agree, rick is heartfelt on that because he was very pragmatic but one of my reflect shunls after 20 plus years is how real he was. i mean, you know, if you saw him flirtatious or joyful or festive or playful, it was that way when you were behind the scenes or when you were in front of the camera. but wow know, when he went out on any public appearance, howie was being, how he was being projected, how he was moving, i will tell you a very interesting story when we were back back as a family to see him right at towards the end, when the world cup was there. we walked into have just a little personal time with him and he said to me, how did we do? and that is an amazing comment, because he was so interested in how the country reflected around the world, how
early 40s. he had joined the african national congress, the anc, way back in 1944. the anc opposing apartheid had been organized as non-violent resistance. but after sharpville, they decided maybe that wasn't enough. after sharpville they decided they would form a paramilitary wing and nelson man delg la was one of the anc leaders who went undergroutd to help it. they would target infrastructure and try to sabotage the state. after sharpville the government of south africa started mass arrests of anc leaders and other activists. they banned the a nchnc. they made it illegal to be a part of that group. nelson mandela was arrested in 1961, again in 1962 and convicted of traveling illegally. they sentenced him to five years hard labor on robben island. while he was already serving that sentence they put him on trial again, this time for sabotage. and they convicted him, and they sentenced him to life in prison, to life on robben island. so in 1964 he began a new sentence that was a life sentence, and for the first 18 years of it his cell on robben island had no bid, no plumbing of any
to give a psychological boost to the struggle of the anc and it's cause. and it also helped to further undermine the integrity of the apartheid regime there. >> i think that much credit should be given to organizations like transafrica to the senate and on the house side who continued to push sanctions forward. i must say against stout resistance from the republican admissioadministration that wasn office under ronald reagan. >> thethey were important and ty helped support the struggle there. and to begin to discredit the apartheid regime internationally and in the eyes of many the current campaining against south africa is a fad and morale hoola hoop and fun for a while. was that mostly because of cold war thinking at that time? there was a feeling that the anc was communist? >> i think so. there were many politicians in the united states and globally in western countries who felt that the anc was in fact an off shoot of the south african communist party. that it was affiliated with the larger com communist movement globally. i think they misunderstood history and they misunderstood t
in the ranks of leadership of a civil rights group called the african national congress, the a.n.c. >> they were the revolutionaries of their day. they were the wild young men. >> teichner: former "time" magazine editor rick stengel spent countless hours in private conversation with mandela while collaborating on mandela's autobiography. >> mandela went to johannesburg as a young man and was treated in the terrible way that young black men were treated in the 1950s. i think this had a huge effect on him. >> teichner: mandela was in the forefront of growing resistance by the a.n.c., which began to protest the hated laws requiring blacks to carry passes, restricting where they could go. then, a galvanizing moment caught the world's attention. on march 21, 1960, in sharpeville, the peaceful civil rights movement was pierced with bullets. ( gunfire ) walter cronkite reported. >> police mounted on tanks opened fire. 69 natives were killed, 176 wounded. most of the victims were shot in the back. >> teichner: it was against this blood-red backdrop that nelson mandela took up arms. >> it i
in the country. that's because he was a member of the anc the liberation movement that not apartheid in south africa for decades. movement that the white apartheid threw mandela in prison for being a part of, giving him a light sentence after releasing him after 27 years in captivity, even then, even in the summer of 1990, those first months after he had finally been let out of jail. even as south africa was finally starting to take those first frazzled steps away from apartheid in towards real genuine multi-racial draerks even then as nelson mandela was being hailed as a hero, all across the globe, the united states government officially considered him a member of a terrorist organization. they forced him to endure the endignitary of receiving a waiver of being told in effect, sure, come on in, we will give you some rewards, call you a hero. you are the revepgsception. the rest of the anc, we think they are terrorists. it wasn't until 2008 that congress passed and president george w. bush, not his father, it wasn't until five years ago the u.s. government got around to signing legislation th
. it was a process threatened by violence and the smile disappeared as the anc leader berated those he held responsible, including f.w. de klerk. for nelson mandela the process was never personal. >> we are not dealing with a man, with an individual. we are dealing with a government with a system. >> as a country was pushed and pulled towards democracy. nelson mandela and f.w. de klerk were awarded the "the new york observer." then on the 27th of april 1, '94. south africans of all political persuasions and colours went to the polls. among them nelson mandela voting for the first time. he became the president of a country in which he had been an outlaw. one in which he said the people now governed. >> on this day, you the people took your destiny into your own hands. you decided that nothing would prevent you from exercises your hard-won right to elect a government of your choice. >> after one term as president, nelson mandela did what few leaders in the contain anti did before, stepping down with humour and grace. >> the time has come to hand over. >> at the age of 78 nelson mandela tirele
of actually what was the case. when chris hani was an anc leader, was murdered, that was a seminole moment. you talked about when then mandela goes to f.w. de klerk and says, you have to stop this or virtually everything will go off the rails. >> and he went on television in south africa that night rather than de klerk ask showed that he was the father of the nation. as you know, i was with him when his father was murdered. we were in kuno, had just taken an early morning walk, the phone rang and he picked it up and got the news. he was on the phone for about 15 minutes, his expression never changed. he put down the phone and turned to me with a little ex aspiration and said, man, where is our porridge? he was so calm in a crisis and then he rose to that. he said that was when south africa was on the knife edge of a civil war. that was one of the most perilous moments of modern history. and he presided over the fact that they would repair themselves. >> charlene gault is with us in south africa. i want to show over the years of how mandela was featured, and that international claim that re
. it caught fire. they began to educate and send their anc representatives out of the country and all over the world talking about what was going on. i introduced legislation in the california state assembly where i was serving to divest all of our pension funds from businesses that were doing business in south africa. that caught fire. and investment started all over the united states in various legislatures. the young people on the college campuses started to march and rally. transafrica forms and began to sit in at the south african embassy. we closed down the south african council here in los angeles, so the movement took hold. and we added to that the sanctions, the rallies, the protests, the education about what was going on, and it brought apartheid to an end. >> yeah, i think the key point if that is the grass-roots movement of divestment as the predicate to sanctions. it became the national government's policy version of what universities and cities and states and all sorts of cities were working on on a grass-roots level. i want to bring in thomas frank, author of "the wrecking c
declerk to reform the government had to play peace keeper, trying to temper escalading violence anc, and supporters of the freedom barty, who wanted no part of negotiations with the government that had helped him down for so long. thousands were killed in black on black fighting. also, his marriage to winny mandela, a powerful political force herself was crumbling, the woman who supported him so publicly during the long years of incarceration was accused of having affaired and being linked to some of the violence in south africa. they finally deviced. through it all, he led the country through broader democracy, and in 1984, he was able to vote for himself in a free election. he won, and was inaugurated as the first black president of his country. >> on this day, you took destiny into your own hands. you decided that would nothing would stop you from electing the government of your choice. country's infrastructure. he met the white house, meeting with three sitting presidents. in 2002 george w. bush presented him with the medal of freedom. president obama met mandela once in 2005, w
which considered the anc a terrorist group, from margaret thatcher considered the anc a terrorist group and nelson mandela a terrorist. and this is the '80s. there was a lot of resistance to the idea of the government should fall, much less that this die vestment should take place at all. >> this was in the context of the cold war. and one of the most insidious things that the apartheid south african government did was they couched their oppression in terms of the communist struggle, that essentially the anc was riddled through with communists and pro-cubans. when nelson mandela was freed and made this tour. when he got to miami, he was actually rejected by the local government in miami, two mayors of miami and miami dade would not receive mandela because he was perceived as being pro-castro. so there was this whole sort of cold war fight that was tied up in the south african struggle. and it was part of the reason that the reagan administration opposed the idea of sanctions and divestment from south africa. >> please stay with us. >>> coming up, we will look at the presidency of nelson
reagan's -- the anc because we called ate communist organization. i think the willingness to look at south africa beyond cold arrest terms even when the cold war was raging in the neigh years. >> when you talked to nelson mandela, did you find that he -- had he forgiven the west for, you know, having mostly for the most part sided against the anc? >> i think in my conversations with him, he forgive the west, yes, and he realized that a huge amount of learnings we can pick up from western leaders and in deed we did pick up a huge amount of learnings. i think for example, you remember quite well when he came out he emphasized a question that ultimately these enterprises are going to be nationalized and that was the policy of the anc and so forth and so on. i think it was because of his contacts with major western leaders that he was able to motivate that viewpoint. i'm not trying to suggest that mandela as some people like to suggest simply loving -- i think he succumbed to reason and that reason came from his peers largely in the west. >> peter, what do you think explains the dropo
administration branded the anc a terrorist group and dick cheney voted against a resolution to release nelson mandela. so this was all happening around the world. >> right. i think peter godwin's point that south africa's transition was facile traitated by the end the cold what are is extremely important but it's important to remember in the 1980s a lobl anti-apartheid movement arose during the cold war in which people in america said we're not going to see south africa in purely cold war terms. we're not going to sep reagan's pacic envision that the apartheid regime is on the part of the free world because it's anti-communist and the anc, they are on the side of unfreedom. i think the willingness to look at south africa beyond cold war terms when when the cold war was raging was critically important to the transition in south africa. >> when you talked with nelson mandela, did you find that he -- had he forgiven the west for, you know, having mostly for the most part sided against the anc? >> i think in my conversations with him, he forgave the west, and he realized there's a huge amount of
people. >> reporter: mandela's african national congress, the anc, was banned. he became an outlaw, but he refused to back down. arrested in 1962, mandela was charged with sabotage and with attempting to violently overthrow the government. he was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. for years, for decades the struggle for justice in south africa continued with the imprisoned nelson mandela as its symbol. at times he was forced to break rocks in the hot sun for hours at a time. the government offered mandela freedom if he would renounce violence. he refused. >> today marks the 25th year behind bars for nelson mandela. >> reporter: south africa became an international outcast. facing sanctions, boycotts, and growing political pressure. >> nelson mandela should be released to participate in the country's political process. >> reporter: rock concerts for the cause were broadcast around the world. ♪ hey mandela >> reporter: in 1989, south africa's hard lined president resigned replaced by f. f.w. declerk who began to dismantle apartheid. the ban on anc was lifted. and on februar
and a leading voice in the african national congress, the anc. struggling to end the inequality of apartheid, white ruled south africa's policy of racial segregation. but in 1960 after police shot and killed 49 protestors, the anc which had always been nonviolent created a military wing under mandela's command. >> there are many people who feel that it's useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and nonviolence against the government. >> reporter: the regime determined to maintain white rule saw the inspiring young revolutionary as a threat. >> our struggle is truly national. it is a struggle for the right to live. >> reporter: mandela was imprisoned in 1962 and two years later sentenced to life in prison, accused of working to overthrow the government. in court, on trial for his life he said this. >> i have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society. it is an ideal for which i hope to live and to see realized, but my lord, if it needs be, it is an ideal for which i am prepared to die. >> reporter: four miles off the coast of cape town south africa on robben island, he sp
and exciting and rewarding experience. visit a man who had been selected by the leadership, to lead the anc during nelson mandela's incarceration. he was given the power and the authority to give instructions to the rest of us who were in the service of that cause. i often heard nelson mandela's voice very clearly through the things that he was doing. it became apparent that we were getting closer and closer to the time when mandela would be freed. many of us looked to that with a great sense of hope, but i never thought i would live long enough to see him released from prison. but he was released -- and i was instructed to help them prepare for the first visit to the united states. capacity, i corresponded nelsonnnie mandela and himself, to set up the kind of environment that would be most rewarding with his visit for the united states. here and i was charged with the responsibility of leading the demands that were made upon us for the visit here. >> that was the very first time the very that was first time, during that excitement i was able to meet you and befriend you, but let me thatfor
, defenseless people. >> reporter: the anc was banned. he became an outlaw, but he refused to back down. arrested in 1962 mandela was charged with sabotage and with attempting to violently overthrow the government. he was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. for decades the struggle for justice in south africa continued with the imprisoned nelson mandela as its symbol. at times he was forced to break rocks in the hot sun for hours at a time. the government offered mandela freedom if he would renounce violence. he refused. >> today marks the 25th year behind bars for nelson mandela. >> reporter: south africa became an international outcast, facing sanctions, boycotts, and growing political pressure. >> nelson mandela should be released to participate in the country's political process. ♪ >> reporter: rock concerts for the cause were broadcast around the world. ♪ hey, mandela >> the release of nelson mandela. >> reporter: in 1989 south africa's hardline president p.w.bota resigned, replaced by f.w. clark who slowly began to dismantle apartheid. the ban on the anc was lifted, and
reel seat of the anc. he was arrested again in nineteen sixty two and try to present iphone type activities. then it was sentenced to life imprisonment in nineen sixty four would end up spending more than a quarter of this entry behind bars this involved a minute opinion polls will make a town moment that it was imprisoned lisa curry poignant shook the country in nineteen seventy six government forces saw dozens of youth and school children who would demonstrate in custody in stewart st. in the nineteen nineties demonstrations and police find its continued state of emergency was declared the country's currency collapsed. meanwhile the anti apartheid movement picked up momentum the board's announcement that it became its living single. several musicians great songs in his armor and writing history the month that it was eventually transferred to pick suppose to prison in nineteen ninety eight when he meets guilty secret negotiations with the government. in nineteen ninety the ban on gays he was lifted to dump every eleven combat team into the warm temps a free man . then it was el
of the nation, aimed at civil installations and not soft or human targets but in times can, the anc their acts bore no comparison to the thousands murdered in otherwise disappeared by the regime. >> there are many people whofeed futile for us to continue talkintalking peace and nonviole against a government whose reply is only savage attacks. well i'm on the defenseless people. >> in 1962 a vishz crack downwas caught up in the regime's wide net. his anc colleagues were rounded up and jailed. in 1963 during what came to be called the ravonia trial, the government tried and convicted mandela and seven of the top command of the anc on charges of sabotage and fomenting revolution. a capital offense. the eight were sentenced to life in prison. even from his cell on robin island, the alcatraz like island, six miles from cape town, mandela was uncompromising, says helen, a parliament service person. >> mattresses, the fact that thr between, and mostly about the behavior of the war den who has a tattoo on the back of his hands of the swastika. he says this man is very bad, he treats us badly. >> but e
especially to the generation that came up after his story was well known that his organization the anc was not a non-violent organization. it was rough and he surrounded himself with some rough people. >> right. he started out being non-violent. and when he realized that the anc wasn't getting anywhere close to its mission, the group of leaders of the anc decided we need to become a military organization. and he started spear of the nation which was the military wing of the anc. and he taught himself. he read generals. he read caesar. he learned that like he learned everything. and it went against his grain, but again, as i was saying before, he had one overarching goal. and whatever got to that goal, he would do. even embracing violence. as you showed earlier, he refused to not embrace violence to get out of prison. because he said i can't negotiate while i'm in prison. that was the leverage he had. and he understood that. >> when you're in south africa as you know better than most, you don't hear mandela as much as you hear madiba. and as i was saying to charlayne, it's parental, it'
joined the congress in his country with the anc formed a resistance. he was charged with treason and life in prison. he was in one of the most remote and harsh african prisons. he was freed at 71. within a few yearsar par years apartheid ended. in 2010 south africa welcomed the first world cup. >>> a freeze warning still in effect across the bay area. this morning people bundled up. this video from the east bay, but it was like that much of the bay area. it will be a little warmer, by that we mean a little warmer. jacqueline, how is it looking now? >> reporter: very very cold, pam. there are already sub freezing temperatures. it is 28 in santa rosa. 30 in vallejo. over toward livermore 29. south bay is 30s. 36 in half moon bay. 35 in san mateo. it will only get colder. widespread frost. on your car wind shield, there could even be black ice. we will stay that way overnight. temperatures range between 24 and 32. clear skies now. the storm will move into the bay area. it will be dropping down. we could see snow locally. >>> in richmond an arrest has been made in a gang rape case. it happene
winnie mandela was, what was apartheid, what is anc, that is african national congress. it took years leading up to dive divestment. because i was fortunate enough to serve on the board of trans africa we were part of the strategy that not only did rallying and arrested at the embassy and took over the south african consulate in los angeles but economic sanctions were extremely important to put pressure on the south african government to help bring down the unconscionable apartheid. so it took work, hard work. >> there was a movement across the country as congressman mentioned on campuses everywhere. i was covering it. ron, you in congress with a number of leaders an then some republicans joining in to try to finally pass the legislation. you authored one piece of legislation. it was compromised and finally passed and overrode veto. jim baker said on "morning joe" today, this was a time when congress took on the foreign policy, first override of foreign policy veto of a president in that century. >> it really was. first let me say, i'm honored to be with my sister and friend maxine wa
. because he became softer, that is not true. the policy of forgiveness reconsideration was always anc policy. so that it didn't take prison to do that. theory jet stream tried to plague down how badly it was treating the prisoners. this photograph was a staged event. >> you didn't know this was taken. >> no, we didn't know this was taken. >> the government was trying to make him think he was only doing light work, the prisoners had wondered why for one day only the laboring became easy, but it was to get tougher later, the laboring moved to what was an open lime quarry, 13 years of hard toll breaking rock, the dazzling reflection of white stone, damaging their eyesight. when they weren't laboring, they were sometimes allowed visits in this gloomy building, his second wife an activist herself came under a travel babb, one stage mandela waited two years between her visits. >> by regulation, there was a minimum of six months between each visit, and also by regulation, there was no contact. a screen between husband and wife, winny would sit on this side, the communication through a speake
mandela and te other anc lieder leaders who wee heavily influenced by them. the older men learned a lot by the youth that came into the island and it became an ep pi center of two give generations discussing how to end the apartheid government. that is why it's so significant in the nature of this country and the legacy of nelson mandela. >> it remained wi winnie's homer a number of years did nelson mandela ever go back to the house? >> he go he spent a short while here when he came out of prison. the first thing he did was come home where he was greeted by hundredses of thousands of people from this particular area his wife remained here for much of the time he was in prison. she was removed from the house and banished to a remote town hundreds of miles away from johannesburg both as punishment and to remove her and mande mans influence his daughter continued to remain in the house i. it gives you a taste to see how bad and repressive that they were at that time. and a 17-year-old daughter left to fend for herself in this house. >> describe the impact mandela and his policies had on th
for a number of months. it was the armed wing of the anc of the they would gather and meet to discuss strategies, what to do and where to go next. nelson mandela was dedicated to speak to a senior anc member at that particular time. other members of the anc were here. 50 years ago. the police raided the farm. many were arrested. we had the trial, the moment in the country's history, the scene of his very famous speech. among those who would have faced trial was harold wolkey. he fled overseas into exile. his son, nic nicholas is now the trustee and he joins me now. nicholas, what type of legacy do you think has been left by these giants like mandela and others? >> i think the legacy that they have left comes down to selfless sacrifice. the desire to bring about a change, putting their own needs, their own wants, their own desires second for the cause to insure that a better south africa, a democratic free south africa where all south africas are equal regardless of race creed religion. they are personified those ideals, they carried forward those ideals not only in word but in deed. t
nelson mandela in college. they belonged to the same organization the a.n.c. my grandfather was also a political leader within the anc. my grandmother -- yes, go ahead. >> your grandmother also then was close to him, and visited him in prison, and he wrote her? >> mandela wrote her several times and my grandmother would write back, she told me she wrote so many letters that some of which never reached him. but a few of the letters made it all the way, and she put them into a book. and after giving them to the archives. having visited him where he summerly suffered, he had tuberculosis and problems with his eyesight. she must have seen that suffering, and what did she say or what do you think about how he then incredible grace and dignity to even invite his jailers to his inauguration? well, at this point, i have to admit that when she came back, i thought she was going to come back with a message of fighting let's continue the fight, she said, you would be surprised my grandson, nelson mandela is going to tell all of us, reconcile, shake hands with our former enemies. so she came bac
was a loyal member of the anc as he said. part of his virtue as a politician was that he changed and bended. the anc said, national of the minds, he believed that, he changed his mind. but what he always believed and never forgot and it's a little bit unpopular to say he believed politics was way of changing people's lives for the better. and he was proud to call himself a politics that is what he did. >> as politics you also understood dramatic flourish. there were moments, we saw that in 1990 when he did that eight-city tour. i think when he went to detroit he quoted marvin gay. in front of that audience, it was brilliant. mother, mother, too many of -- brother, brother, too many of you are dying, mother, mother, too many are crying. he understood the moment. >> schieffer: what did he say in new york? >> can i just tell a story. when we were doing christmas kindness in south africa go to remote villages. thousands of kids would be waiting for their soccer balls and jersey. a local politician went on for an hour about political theory. nelson mandela did twinkle, twinkle, little star and
, which was always the goal of the anc. and whether one is from nigeria or tanzania or closer to home, mozambique, across africa people rallied behind the anc in that struggle. i think president mandela stood for freedom, and he now stands for integrity and perseverance. the continent needs to move towards that in terms of the next phase of the struggle, which is political freedom has been achieved now. economic freedom is necessary. >> speak a little about your own experience in relation to the perspective of nelson mandela, particularly when it comes to nonviolent protest, and in violence in africa, as well is the work you have done combating aids in africa. >> i really respect president mandela, again, because of his conviction. he was a person who started as he did, in terms of nonviolent struggle against apartheid regime, and at some point he realized the level of repression of the national party required a more robust response, which was moving towards arms struggle. leader likefound a erk who could negotiate with the national party that was now ready after the mass demonstratio
to europe and other countries in africa to built support for the anc and study guerilla warfare. when he returned to south africa in 1962, mandela was arrested and sentenced to years in prison. during his sentence, the government charmed mandela and other anc leaders with sabotage and attempting to violently overthrow the government. the winner of 1964, mandela and his colleagues were sentenced to in prison. mandela's brutal imprisonment helped win freedom for his nation. he represented himself and in his defense spoke out about democracy. equality and freedom. on february 2nd, 1990 amidst escalating international pressure, south african president lifted the ban on the anc and released mandela. mandela was awarded the nobel peace prize in december of 1993. in april of 1994, in south africa's first truly democratic election where all races were allowed to participate, nelson mandela was overwhelming elected to the presidency. he was battling a respiratory infection since early june. a remarkable man and a remarkable life and a model of stick-to-itiveness and never give up. a man of tremen
. with him no longer as the spiritual leader of the anc. at least no longer on this earth. what is that going to do to politics going forward? >> when he walked away and said don't call me, i'll call you, he left politics. so for a number of years now, he has not been on the scene. i think to a certain extent, that's unfortunate. i think that this young democracy is having some missteps. >> it does feel that way. >> a few stumbles. it's difficult because mandela has not been there to way in. maybe at this moment when people are not on the streets, but contemplating what mandela stood for, they might come to a better moment than they are in currently. >> put into perspective, that was an amazing three or four-year period in history. when you look back, it's stunning and like how did we lose the momentum? we were almost there. >> it takes -- you did have prague and the berlin wall and the leaders who were able to have a vision. bush 41 had a vision in terms of german reunionification. there were leaders in different parts of the world. >> who seize the moment. >>a i new economic freedom was not
in south africa. but having him work with his team and the pollster for the anc during that first election, there were three things that really struck me. one was just his enormous clarity and vision for the country and bringing the country together. the second was his great pragmatism. there were a set of election rules that came down that were really disadvantageous to mandela and to the anc. we were all very upset by those rules, and he was just very calm and said no, we'll make it work. find a way to make it work. he refused to fight over the rules and just said we'll make it work. >> give us some unsight into that. what were his unique qualities that allowed him to make it work? in the face of what seemed to be something that was very difficult if not insurmountable. >> i think, first of all, was just the clarity of his own vision. the amount of thinking that he had done about where he wanted to take the country and what reconciliation meant. and how he had already put that to practice. that was so fundamental to his soul. and what was interesting is, of course, there were many factio
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